Monday, July 16, 2007

~@~Personal Filtering~@~

It's not always easy to understand why we think, feel, or behave as we do. Cognitive Therapy deals primarily with our view of our personal world and changing misperceptions. To better understand how Cognitive Therapy works, it helps to understand what Cognitive Distortions are and how they work. Once again, I've stolen a list from and you'll need to go to that site to read the article in it's entirety.

List Of Cognitive Distortions:

"Related links are suggested in parentheses.
All-or-nothing thinking - Thinking of things in absolute terms, like "always", "every" or "never". Few aspects of human behavior are so absolute. (See false dilemma.)
Overgeneralization - Taking isolated cases and using them to make wide generalizations. (See hasty generalization.)
Mental filter - Focusing exclusively on certain, usually negative or upsetting, aspects of something while ignoring the rest, like a tiny imperfection in a piece of clothing. (See misleading vividness.)
Disqualifying the positive - Continually "shooting down" positive experiences for arbitrary, ad hoc reasons. (See special pleading.)
Jumping to conclusions - Assuming something negative where there is no evidence to support it. Two specific subtypes are also identified:
Mind reading - Assuming the intentions of others.
Fortune telling - Predicting how things will turn before they happen. (See slippery slope.)
Magnification and Minimization - Inappropriately understating or exaggerating the way people or situations truly are. Often the positive characteristics of other people are exaggerated and negative characteristics are understated. There is one subtype of magnification:
Catastrophizing - Focusing on the worst possible outcome, however unlikely, or thinking that a situation is unbearable or impossible when it is really just uncomfortable.
Emotional reasoning - Making decisions and arguments based on how you feel rather than objective reality. (See appeal to consequences.)
Making should statements - Concentrating on what you think "should" or ought to be rather than the actual situation you are faced with, or having rigid rules which you think should always apply no matter what the circumstances are. (See wishful thinking.)
Labeling - Related to overgeneralization, explaining by naming. Rather than describing the specific behavior, you assign a label to someone or yourself that puts them in absolute and unalterable terms.
Personalization (or attribution) - Assuming you or others directly caused things when that may not have been the case. (See illusion of control.) When applied to others this is an example of blame."*taken from

Before we can understand others, we must first understand ourselves.

~@~Read, Learn, And Analyze~@~

"Pay Attention And READ More"

Yes I steal a lot of psychology material from other sources but only in the name of good. Besides to read this article below in it's entirety you'll need to go to and look up Defence Mechanisms.

"List of defense mechanisms

Sigmund Freud was the first person to develop the concept of defense mechanisms, however it was his daughter Anna Freud who clarified and conceptualized it. She has described various different defense mechanisms:

Identification. The unconscious modeling of one's self upon another person's behavior.

Inversion. Refocusing of aggression or emotions evoked from an external force onto one's self.

Substitution. When a person replaces one feeling or emotion for another. " *taken from

Unfortunately I cannot help anyone who doesn't understand this information to understand it. I have more training and experience when it comes to the human mind and human behavior than most people in the general population, but I did understand Defence Mechanisms before I ever considered becoming a psychotherapist.
Good luck,